Part I will focus on the ecology and politics of seasonal hunger and famine; Part II on chronic hunger and food poverty; and Part III on social groups especially vulnerable to food deprivation and various dimensions of malnutrition. All are interrelated. The course, while focusing on hunger in the Third World, will touch also on problems of hunger in industrialized nations and the prospects for improving the food/nutrition situations in both rich and poor nations. Concluding issues for discussion will include: sustainable food systems; population, health, and nutrition policy; and global interdependence.
To connect these global perspectives on hunger to particular peoples and places, each student will select one nation as a focus (case study) for more extensive research and for two written assignments. The first will deal with the ecology and politics of food availability in the nation selected. The second will explore a particular sociocultural, political economic, or nutritional dimension of hunger/hunger interventions.
Uvin, Peter, ed. l994 The Hunger Report: 1993. The World Hunger Program, Brown University. New York: Gordon & Breach
Dreze, J. and A. Sen l989 Hunger and Public Action. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Heiser, C. l990 Seed to Civilization. New Edition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Huss-Ashmore, R. and S. Katz, eds. l989 African Food Systems in Crisis. Part One: Microperspectives New York: Gordon and Breach
Lappe, Frances Moore and Joseph Collins l978 Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity. NY: Ballantine (with Part II)
Berg, Alan l973 The Nutrition Factor. Washington, DC: Brookings (with Part III)
In addition, there are a number of recommended texts available for purchase:
Barraclough, Solon L. l991 And End to Hunger?: The Social Origins of Food Strategies. Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Zed Books
George, S. l985 Ill Fares the Land. New York: Penguin
van Esterik, P. l989 Beyond the Breast-Bottle Controversy. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press
Also recommended for purchase is a xeroxed set of required class readings that are available at Copy Center 2, Basement, Metcalf Lab, l90 Thayer Street. All required and recommended readings are on reserve at the Rock.
Grigg, David. (l985) The World Food Problem. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp.l-53
Messer, E. (l994) Overview. The Hunger Report: 1993, pp.ix-xiii and Uvin, P. (l994) The State of World Hunger. The Hunger Report: 1993, pp.1-25
Willett, W. (l994) Diet and Health: What Should We Eat? Science 264:532-537
What are recommended minimum intakes of energy and essential nutrients? How are dietary requirements and allowances set? How do cultural food habits affect adequacy of intakes?
Hinton, A.W., J. Heimindinger, and S.Foerster (l990) Position of the American Dietetic Association: Domestic Hunger and Inadequate Access to Food. American Dietetic Association Reports 90.10:l437-41
The Medford Declaration (handout for class discusson)
Are the hunger standards the same in the U.S. as in the rest of the world?
What opportunities are there for working against hunger in the greater Providence area?
Colson, Elizabeth (l979) In Good Years and Bad: Food Strategies in Self-Reliant Societies. Journal of Anthropological Research 35:l8-29
Flannery, K.V. (l968) Archaeological Systems Theory and Early Mesoamerica. IN Streuever, Ed., pp. 80-l00
Flannery, K.V. et. al. (l967) Farming Systems and Political Growth in Ancient Oaxaca. IN Struever, Ed., pp. l57-78
Why/how did agriculture begin?
How abrupt is the transition from gathering to gardening?
What are the major and minor Old and New World crops?
What is the relationship between agriculture and herding?
How do the ongoing origins of agriculture mitigate or intensify hunger problems?
Ludwig, D., R. Hilborn, and C. Waters (l993) Uncertainty, Resource Exploitation and Conservation. Science 260:17-18
Genetic Engineering: Germplasm Resources; The Columbian Exchange and The Irish Potato Famine The Case of Rice
Heiser, (entire--skim, then concentrate on crop plants that interest you)
Messer, E. and P. Heywood l990 Trying Technology. Neither Sure Nor Soon. Food Policy (August l990): 336-45
How do modern technologies in agriculture alleviate but also foster different types of hunger problems over the short and long term?
Curtis, Donald, Michael Hubbard, and Andrew Shepherd (l988) Famine and the National and International Economy. Preventing Famine, NY: Routledge, pp. ll-27
Dreze and Sen, pp.62-l2l
Cohen, David W. and E.S. Atieno Adhiambo (l989) Siaya. The Historical Anthropology of an African Landscape. pp. 61-84
What are historical roots of famine in Africa?
What are the ecological versus political dimensions of famine problems?
How might local, national, and international resources be combined productively to alleviate hunger problems?
King, Preston (l986) An African Winter. NY: Viking Penguin (entire)
McAlpin, Michelle B. (l987) Famine Relief Policy in India: Six Lessons for Africa. World Hunger Program Occasional Papers 87,2.
Dreze and Sen, pp. l22-6l; 204-25; 257-59
What lessons does the Asian experience hold for African famine prevention and relief efforts?
What role does the press play in famine prevention and response?
Falla, Ricardo (l988) Struggle for Survival in the Mountains: Hunger and other Privations Inflicted on Internal Refugees from the Central Highlands. IN Harvest of Violence. The Maya Indians and the Guatemalan Crisis. R.M. Carmack, Ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press pp.235-55
What are the strengths and weaknesses of international and national efforts to eliminate foodwars?
First Paper Due: Thursday, October 27
Dreze and Sen, pp. 20-34;l66-203
Sen, Amartya (1981) Poverty and Famines. An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. Oxford: Clarendon, pp. l-8
Lappe, Frances and Joseph Collins (l978) Food First. NY: Ballantine, pp.l-96
Hartmann, Betsy and James Boyce (l983) A Quiet Violence: View From a Bangladesh Village. London: Zed Press, pp.73-121; 169-176 (reprint) For class discussion.
What are the methods that different socioeconomic and occupational groups use to avert risk of, or adapt to, risk of entitlement failure?
Eber, C. and B. Rosenbaum (1993) "That We May Serve Your Hands and Feet": Women Weavers in Highland Chiapas Mexico. IN Crafts in the World Market: The Impact of Global Exchange on Middle American Artisans, J.Nash, ed. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp.155-79
Scrimshaw, M. and S. Cosminsky (1991) The Impact of Health on Women's Food Procurement Strategies on a Guatemalan Plantation. IN Diet and Domestic Life in Society. A. Sharman, J. Theophano, K. Curtis, and E. Messer, Eds. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, pp.61-90
Reutlinger, S. and G. Hyden (l99l) Reaching the Urban Rural Poor: Suggestions for Implementing the Bellagio Declaration. World Hunger Program, Brown University, Providence, RI
International Conference on Nutrition l992 FAO/WHO. World Declaration and Plan of Action for Nutrition (background documents are recommended readings)
Kottak, Conrad (l99l) When People Don't Come First: Some Sociological Lessons from Completed Projects, IN Putting People First. Sociological Variables in Rural Development, M.Cernea, Ed. pp.43l-464.
World Bank (l986) National Measures to Reduce Chronic Food Insecurity. IN Poverty and Hunger. Issues and Options for Food Security in Developing Countries, pp.28-4l
Cornia, Giovanni A., Richard Jolly, and Frances Stewart (l987) Summary and Conclusions IN Adjustment with a Human Face, Oxford: Clarendon, pp.287-97
Cassidy, Claire (l980) Benign Neglect and Toddler Malnutrition. IN Social and Biological Predictors of Nutritional Status, Physical Growth, and Neurological Development. L.S. Greene and F. Johnston, Eds. NY: Academic Press, pp. l09-39 (reprint)
UNICEF. (l99l) The State of the World's Children 1991 New York: Oxford University Press, pp.51-74
The Breast-Feeding versus Bottle-Feeding Controversy The Energy and Protein Controversy
Jonsson, U. and A. Zerfas (1994) After the World Summit for Children; Achieving the Nutrition Goals Through Naitonal Programs of Action. The Hunger Report: 1993, pp.87-101
Das Gupta, M. (l987) Selective Discrimination Against Female Children in Rural Punjab, India. Population and Development Review l3:77-100
Greene, Lawrence (l977) Hyperendemic Goiter, Cretinism, and Social Organization in Highland Ecuador. IN Malnutrition, Behavior, and Social Organization, L.Greene, Ed. NY: Academic, pp. 55-94
Underwood, B., K. West, and E. Messer (l99l) Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders and Vitamin A Deficiencies as Public Health Problems. Papers from the 4th Annual World Hunger Program Briefing, April 5, l99l.
Messer, E. (l994) The International Conference on Nutrition: Historical Perspectives and Prospects. The Hunger Report: 1993, pp.7l-86
Uvin, P. (l994) The State of World Hunger. The Hunger Report: 1993, pp.26-36