Bentley College

Professor: Dr. Debbie Easterling

Office: Morison 209
Office Phone: 891-2276 Office Hrs: T/Th 2-4pm

Text:              Marketing, Keegan, Moriority,  and Duncan
                   Prentice Hall, 1st edition

Course             Explores the role of marketing both within the
Description        firm and within society.  Examines concepts,
                   functions, and institutions involved in the
                   process of developing and distributing products
                   and services to consumer, industrial,
                   institutional and international markets.

 Course            To provide  students with an-introduction to
 Objectives        issues related to the management of marketing.
                   Specifically, the course is designed so that
                   students will:
                   1.  learn about the marketing environment;
                   2.  understand the concepts and terminology
                       related to the field of marketing;
                   3.  develop  an appreciation for the role of
                       marketing in business and to move from
                       A consumer's understanding of marketing
                       processes to a marketer's understanding
                       of marketing processes;
                   4.  learn about the role of marketing from
                       an international, ethical and societal
                       perspective (societal marketing);
                   5.  enhance communication skills and apply
                       these skills in the marketing project; and
                   6.  develop the ability to work well in teams
                       and apply this skill to the group
                       assignment.

  Attendance      Regular attendance and active participation

Participation, is expected.
& Tardiness

                   In order to facilitate class discussions,
                   students must provide a small photo of them-
                   selves during the 1st week of class.

                   Any person arriving after the scheduled
                   commencement of class will lose a percentage
                   point from their final average.  Extra time
                   for quizzes will not be granted-to late
                   arrivals.  If I am late to class, one point will
                   be added to final averages of all who are
                   present and waiting on me.

2

Course

Assignments       A primary semester  project will consist of the
                  development of a marketing plan for a "not-for-
                  profit" agency.  organizations for these
                  projects have been obtained from Bentley's
                  Service Learning department.  Students will work
                  in groups (5-6) to complete the project.  At the
                  end of the semester, groups will present
                  highlights of their projects in class.  (A
                  framework for the Marketing Plan will be
                  provided).  Additional details will also be
                  provided.
                  As part of this assignment, students will
                  maintain a journal detailing their observations
                  and experiences prior to, during, and after
                  their fieldwork.  A separate handout for this
                  Journal will be provided:
                  Exams  There will be four quizzes - Quiz formats
                  will consist of multiple choice and short
                  answers.

                  Extra Work      Without exception, there will be
                  no extra work allowed to make-up any grade
                  deficiency.

 Grading          Final Grades will consist of the following:

                  Quizzes                    40%
                  Journal                    20%
                  service  Learning
                    Project:  Written        30%
                    oral Presentation        10%
                                            100%

3

Tentative Schedule'

    Week              Topic                             Assignments
    1 (1-20)          Th:  Introduction to Course

    2 (1-24;27)       M:  The Role of Marketing               Ch.  1
                      Th:  Marketing and the org.             Ch.  2

    3 (1-31;2-3)      M:  The External Environment            Ch.  3
                      Th:  Marketing Strategy                 Ch.  4

    4 (2-7;10)        M:  Marketing Information               Ch.  5
                      Th:  Quiz #1                            Chs  1-5

    5 (2-14;17)       M:  Consumer Buying                     Ch.  6
                      Th:  Organizational Buying              Ch.  7

    6 (2-21;24)       M:  Presidents Day
                      Th:  Segmentation, Comp.  Advantage     Chs. 8,9
                      **Parts II and III  due (+ journals)**

    7 (2-28;3-3)      M:  The Product: Goods/Services         Chs.10,11
                      Th:  Quiz #2                            Chs 6-11

    8 (3-7;10)        Spring Break

    9 (3-14;17)       M:  New Products                        Ch. 12
                      Th:  Positioning/Branding.              Ch. 13

    10 (3-21;24)      M:  Pricing Considerations              Chs.14,15
                      Th:  Marketing Channels                 Ch. 16
                      **Parts IV and V due (+ journals)**

    11 (3-28;31)      M:  Retailing/Wholesaling               Ch. 17
                      Th:  Quiz #3                            Chs 12-17

    12 (4-4;7)        m:  Marketing communications            Ch. 18
                      Th:  Personal Selling                   Ch. 19

    13 (4-11;14)      M:  Advertising                         Ch. 20
                      Th:  Sales Promotion/Direct Mktg-       Chs.21,22
    14 (4-18;21)      M:  Patriots Day Holiday
                      Th:  Quiz 14                            Chs 18-22
                            Semester Projects Due

    15 (4-25;28)      M:  Presentations (Groups 1 and   2)
                      Th:  Presentations (Groups 3 and  4)

    16 (5-2)          M:  Presentations (Groups 5 and   6)
    Note: Final Exam Period    Thurs.  May 5th     2 pm  -  Journals  Due
         4

Service Learning Semester Projects

service learning assignments will be utilized as a means of achieving the goals of both Bentley College and this Marketing Principles course. Specifically, this semester project will provide an opportunity for you to obtain hands on experience in using 'newly developed' marketing skills, techniques and methodologies in a not-for-profit setting.

As a class, we will be working with three agencies: the Red Cross, Northern Lights Foundation, and Boston Living Center. As an individual, you will work with a group of students (4 to 5 students per group) on a project for one agency only.

Red Cross

   Group One       Develop a marketing plan identifying  ways  to
                   expand the current CPR/First Aid Volunteer
                   Instructor Base.  A majority of these courses
                   (above 90%) are taught by volunteers; the  Red
                   Cross depends on income generated by  courses.

   Group Two       Develop a marketing plan for their annual
                   "Walk-a-thon"; focusing upon increasing walker
                   participation.  The walk takes place in April.

   Group Three     Develop a marketing plan for their annual.
                   "Walk-a-thon"; focusing upon increasing
                   donations from corporate  sponsors.  The  walk
                   takes place in April.

Northern Lights Alternatives

   Group Four      Develop a marketing plan for an existing "AIDS
                   Mastery Workshop" -- but for a new  segment  -
                   women.  Workshops are provided for people with
                   or affected in any way by HIV/AIDS.

   Group Five      Develop a comprehensive marketing plan that will
                   include all possible target markets - for all
                   services currently provided (or anticipated to
                   be provided in the near future).

Boston Living Center

   Group Six       Design a marketing plan for their existing
                   Monday Night Dinner Program.
                   Currently, meals for this program are provided
                   by Consolidated Foods.  It is  a  goal  of  the
                   agency to be able to serve meals that were not
                   previously prepared.

There is no single best format to follow in developing marketing plans. Some plans are longer than others, and one organization rarely uses the same format as another. All marketing plans, however, should follow this logical progression: Where Are We Now? Where Do We-Want to Go? How do we Get-There?

There are seven elements to a-marketing plan:

       I.   Executive    Summary
      II.   Current    Marketing  situation
     III.   -Opportunities   and  Problems
      IV.   Marketing Objectives
       V.   Marketing Strategies
      VI.   Action Programs
     Vii.    Controls

Each section will be briefly detailed.

Executive Summary

This is a 2-3 page synopsis of the marketing plan. Although the Executive Summary appears first, it is actually the LAST part to be written - and sometimes the hardest part to write. The purpose of the summary is to provide executives with a brief overview of the highlights of the plan.

The Executive Summary is an important part of the Marketing Plan. It may be the only document that a top level executive reads, in deciding whether or not to support the plan. Thus, it has to include the major considerations (opportunities, threats, budgets, timetables). Not only executives, but bankers, stockholders, and suppliers generally read the Executive Summary.

Current Marketing Situation

The first step in developing a marketing plan is to analyze the current marketing situation for the service. The purpose of a situation analysis is to determine the firm's current position. The results of this analysis will influence the latter stages of the Marketing Plan. Two aspects of the current situation should be examined: the marketing environment and the consumer/organizational market.

The Marketing Environment
An analysis of the marketing
environment is a major consideration -in strategic marketing planning. The forces in. a marketing environment directly or indirectly influence a firm's marketing activities. In developing a Marketing Plan, all relevant background data should be included.


Analysis of the Marketing Environment

competition

     Who are the major competitors?
     What are their strengths/weaknesses?
     What are their objectives/strategies?
     Who are our future competitors?

     Regulations/Politics

     What laws exist or are being proposed that may affect our
     service?
     What federal, state, local  agency  actions should  be  watched?
     What is the general political tone for  our service area?

     Society

     What is  the attitude of society toward  our service?
     What social trends are occurring that have an impact on our
     service?
     Are any special interest groups likely to affect our plan?

     Economic Conditions

     What is the buying power of consumers in  our  current  markets?
     What are the spending patterns of consumers in current
     markets?
     What is projected in terms of inflation, recession, recovery
     how will this affect our service?

     Technology/Natural

     What  major  changes  are  occurring  that  will  influence  our
     servicing?
     How are these forces helping us?  hurting us?

Where will you get the information to answer these questions? From both internal and external sources. Information will be gathered through observations, through reviews of business/government publications, and marketing research.

     Target Market  Analysis      Another  aspect  of   the   current
marketing situation that. must be examined is the market.         The

Marketing Plan should include a detailed analysis of current target markets, including service usage and customer (sometimes called members) behavior. The purpose, again, is to determine where the firm is NOW.


Target Market Analysis

      Demographics
      Sex            Education
      Age            Household Size
      income         Ethnic   Background
      occupation     Family  Life  Cycle

      Psychographics
      Personalities
      Motives
      Lifestyles

      Service - Related
      Usage (heavy versus light)
      Benefits

      organizational Markets
      Type of Organization
      Location
      Customer  Base

      size  of  Market
      Potential
      Market Share
      Projected Growth/Decline
      Company Forecast

The above is f airly comprehensive; you may not need all the information. Most firms-have demographic and market size data; fewer have psychographic and service-related data.

Opportunities/Problems

This element of the Marketing Plan presents a detailed summary of opportunities and problems - both inside and outside the organization - facing the service that the plan deals with. Many of these opportunities/problems will come directly from the situation analysis. other issues may also surface that weren't addressed in the situation analysis.

opportunities are the result of strengths or positive circumstances. A firm's human and financial resources, as well as its unique experiences and expertise can be strengths or opportunities.

Conversely',, problems stem from weaknesses, or negative circumstances. Problems can be the result of personnel limitations, - financial constraints, government regulations, competition, or any other circumstance having a negative impact on the firm's ability to deliver on its'--Marketing -promise.


Each opportunity and problem that is identified should be written in a clear, concise statement, and a rationale for the opportunity or problem should be provided. The purpose of the rational is to provide supporting data.

The identification of opportunities that can be exploited and problems that can be solved is extremely important. Although opportunities and problems do not tell us what to do, they do identify the areas that must be addressed.

It is, also important to note that problems when handled appropriately, become opportunities.

Marketing objectives

The next component of the Marketing Plan consists of specifying what is to be accomplished through marketing "activities. Marketing objectives identify where the firm wants to go. They state the goals of the firm in terms of services provided (sales volume); market share; or other objectives.

Marketing objectives should be written in clear, concise terms so that everyone involved in implementing strategies knows exactly what is trying to be accomplished. Marketing objectives should also be realistic and attainable. Finally, objectives should be measurable.

Marketing planners must also decide how many objectives to establish and the extent to which they are prioritized. The number of objectives must be limited so that important areas are given adequate attention.

Marketing objectives can be developed for the service, itself, or to any of the other marketing mix elements.

Statement of Objectives

       Service Objectives (extension, improvement, deletions)
       Distribution (outlets, service levels)
       Communication (personal selling, advertising, promotion)
       Pricing (contributions, etc.)

Marketing Strategy

in this section of the Marketing Plan, the broad marketing strategy or "game plan" for achieving the objectives is detailed.

Marketing strategy is the logic by which the firm hopes to achieve its objectives. it consists of specific strategies for target markets, positioning, the marketing mix and marketing expenditures. As a minimum, two broad strategies must be developed:


      1 -  for  target markets;.and
      2 -  for  the marketing mix elements.

Remember: The best strategies are those that provide a competitive advantage and are difficult for another firm to copy.

Action Program

Action programs spell out the directives and responsibilities needed for implementing the marketing strategies. Action programs address several questions: What will be done? Who will do it? When will it be done? How much will it cost?

Action Programming

     Marketing objective
     ___________________________________________________________
     ___________________________________________________________

     Activities     Person          Completion      Amount
     Performed      Responsible     Date            Budgeted
     ____________   _____________   _____________   _____________
     ____________   _____________   _____________   _____________

     Marketing Objective
     ___________________________________________________________
     ___________________________________________________________

     Activities     Person          Completion      Amount
     Performed      Responsible     Date            Budgeted
     ____________   _____________   _____________   _____________
     ____________   _____________   _____________   _____________

                           ***********

All activities performed should related to one of the         firm's
marketing  objectives.      Additionally,   activities   should   be

coordinated, since the completion of one is often dependent upon the completion of another.

Controls

The final section of the marketing plan includes the controls used to measure the results of the plan. Controls should be established to evaluate the plan on an ongoing basis and to take action to reduce discrepancies between desired and actual performance. Two major questions are addressed here:

     Are we achieving our objectives?, If Not,
     What is happening?
     Why is it happening?
     What should we do about it?

                          MK 160-Marketing  Principles
           Service  Learning Projects:  Journal Entries

Journal Keeping
To fulfill this assignment, you must produce DETAILED records of your observations and experiences, prior to, during, and following your fieldwork to the agency that you are scheduled to visit. Your journal notes should be typed.

All entries should be written -in complete sentences; make paragraphs to divide topics of description, events, etc. At the beginning of each entry, note the date, time, day of week, and location of your visit. - it is likely that you will make several visits to the agency over the course of the semester. Therefore - for each visit, you will have two entries (one for prior thoughts and feelings; one for observations and experiences). Additionally, following your final visit -- and the completion of your project -- you should make one final entry which would summarize what you have experienced over the course of the semester.

Prior Thoughts and Feelings
Prior to each visit, make an entry that describes openly, honestly

Field Notes
You should have detailed field notes on each visit that you make to your agency. They should describe your visit in a chronological order - from the point of entry to your departure. You should report what you saw, heard, felt, and thought about while you were there. Describe specific events, conversations, people's appearances, behaviors, etc. An important part of "participant observation" notes is capturing in detail your own experiences -- your thoughts, perceptions, feelings, etc.

Write your field notes as soon after your observation period as possible. You are using your memory and your notes to compose a detailed, chronological account of your observations.

Final Note on Journals
The key word is DETAIL. Your journal entries are expected to be relatively lengthy -- due to the detail you will describe. YOU should also include some thoughts on how your group is working together -- as part of your prior thoughts & f eelings -- and as part of the field notes. It would be expected that these notes would result in about 10-15 pages of typed entries.


MK 160 Marketing Principles Easterling, Spring, 1994 Notes on Keeping a Journal

A journal can serve many functions in a business course. It can be helpfull in the process of discovery and reflection as a place to record ideas, insights, and issues of interest.

A journal should serve as a "logbook" or notebook of your experiences. It can be used to record meetings with your peer group or with your organizational leaders. Keeping accurate accounts of such meetings will help you to stay on track and help to coordinate your work. For this type of journal, it is best to record dates of meetings, those people who were present, delegation of responsibilities/tasks, goals, and finally, summaries of what occurred and how you feel about it.

For this type of journal, IT IS BEST to write an en-Lry after every encounter in the field, or meeting, or working session. Early entries may detail your observations, and descriptions of your project, along with the people you encounter. Include space in the journal to write out your impressions of what you see, whom you deal with, and how you see your experience affecting you -- what issues come up in interactions, in the community, in your peer group?

As a research tool, a journal can help you as you sift through information - and - make sense of-your findings. If you can use such space to develop ideas, amplify thoughts or consider questions and answers, you may find it much easier to select feasible solutions to your "client's" (your organization) problems.

The process of keeping a journal can become a powerful tool in developing critical thinking skills. However, to be helpful to you, the journal must contain detailed information. As a guideline, consider including thoughts on the questions below.

  1. Your project, as it is assigned.
  2. Your meetings, phone conversations with agency people.
  3. Your experiences obtaining information for the project.
  4. Relationships between course readings and your project.
  5. Ideas/Information gathered that you can integrate into the project.
  6. Questions, concerns, insights that you have as you work with your agency
  7. Questions, concerns, insights that you have as you work with your peer
  8. An evaluation of what you have learned as you work through this project.